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from The History of the Jewish Church, Vol. II: From The Captivity To The Christian Era, by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D., Dean of Westminster Charles Scribner's Sons, 1879; pp. 315 - 337.
By Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D. LECTURE XLVIII. JUDAS MACCABÆUS. B. C. 175-163. ——•—— AUTHORITIES. HISTORICAL. (1) 1 Maccabees—Greek translation of a lost Hebrew original, which bore the name of Sarbath Sar Beni El, B. C. 120. It con- tains the history from the accession of Antochus to the death of Simon. 2 Maccabees—Greek abridgement of a lost work of Jason of Cy- rene, B. C. 160, in five books. B. C. 100-50. It contains the history from the accession of Antiochus to the death of Judas, with legendary additions. 3 Maccabees—Greek. No Latin translation, and therefore in the Greek Bible, but not in the Roman, Lutheran, or English Bible. B. C. 50? It contains the account of the persecu- tions by Ptolemy Philopater. 4 Maccabees—Greek—wrongly ascribed to Josephus, but print- ed in his works. B. C. 4? It contains an amplification of 2 Macc. vi. 18, vii. 42. 5 Maccabees—A late work, certainly after A. D. 70—known only in Arabic and Syriac. It contains the history both of the Asmoneans and of Herod. These five books were published in one English volume by Arch- deacon Cotton, 1832. (2) Josephus Ant. xii. 5-11, B. J. i. 1, A. D. 71. PROPHETICAL AND POETICAL. (1) Daniel—probably B. C. 167-164. (See Note on Lecture XLII.) (2) Psalms lxxiv., lxxix. (3) Psalter of Solomon (Fabricius, Codex Pseud. v. i., p. 914-999)— B. C. 167-162? (4) Sibylline Books, iii. 2, 3. B. C. 165, or B. C. 124. GENTILE. (1) Diodorus Siculus, xxxiv. 4, xl. 1. (2) Polybius, xxvi. 10, xxxi. 3, 4. (3) Livy, xli. 21. LECTURE XLVIII. JUDAS MACCABÆUS. THE close connection between the Jews of Palestine and the Ptolemæan dynasty received a rude shock in the outrage of Ptolemy Philopator; and, as at the same time they had been on friendly terms with An- tiochus III., from the time of his victory over the Egyptian forces by the source of the Jordan at Paneas, their allegiance was gradually transferred to the Sy- rian kingdom. At this point, therefore, we turn from Alexandria to Antioch, from Egypt to Syria. In the northern extremity of Syria, where "the "fourth river" of the Lebanon ranges, after having risen from its abundant fountain in the centre of those hills, bends through the rich plains to escape into the Mediterranean out of the pressure of the ridges of Mount Casius and Mount Amanus, the first Seleucus founded the city to which, after his father Antiochus, he gave the name to Antioch—a city destined to owe its chief celebrity not to it Grecian, but is Semitic surroundings; destined in sacred as- sociations in one sense to outshine Jerusalem itself. It would almost seem as if Alexandria and Antioch had divided between them the two characteristics of the old metropolis of the primeval world. If Alexan- dria represented the learning and commerce of Babylon —the nobler elements of ancient civilization—Antioch represented it splendor, it luxury, its vanities. And, accordingly, whilst the relations of Israel to the Ptole- mies are almost all pacific and beneficent, its relations to the Seleucidæ are almost all antagonistic and re- pulsive. Sometimes the thought occurs whether it was pos- sible for the Judaism of Palestine to have absorbed the genial and artistic side of the Grecian polytheism, as, in fact, the Judaism of Alexandria did to a large extent absorb the speculative and spiritual side of the Grecian Philosophy. An honored name appears at the opening of the struggle on which we are now entering—Antigonus of Socho, who was regarded as the founder of some such attempt to com- bine a broader view of religion with the Judaic auster- ity handed down from Ezra. One saying of his alone remains, but it is full of significance an shows how a seed of a future faith had already borne fruit in that dark and troubled time. "Be not like those servants "who busy themselves to serve their masters in the "hope of reward, but be like those servants who busy "themselves to serve their masters without expectation "of recompense, and the favor of Heaven be over you." But whatever was the higher aspect of the Grecian party in Judæa was speedily cast into the shade by the deadly struggle which was now being waged between the accursed "kingdom of Javan," as the Syrian dynasty was called and the stern patriots who saw in its policy the attempt to suppress all that had sanctified and ennobled their national exist- ence. In this struggle two parties only were recognized by its historian, "the "Chasidim" or "pious," —a name already familiar in the Psalter—and their opponents, to whom was given the opprobrious designa- tion also borrowed from the Psalter, "sinners," 'law- "less," "impious." The aggression o the part of the Syrian kings had already begun in the reign of Seleucus IV., with the encouragement of the Hellenizing party, for the moment headed by one of the mischiev- ous clan known as the sons of Tobias. The first at- tempt was on the Temple treasures, including the pri- vate deposits, which as in a bank had been laid up for the widows and orphans under the shelter of the sanct- uary. Then it was that occurred the scene portrayed in the liveliest colors in the traditions of the next century, when Heliodorus the king's treasurer came with an armed guard to seize it. It is a complete representation of what must have been the general aspect of a panic in Jerusalem. The Priests in their official costume are prostrate before the altar. The High Priest is in such "an inward agony of mind "that whoso had looked at his countenance and chang- "ing color, it would have wounded his heart." The Temple courts are crowded with supplicants; the ma- trons, with bare bosoms, running frantically through the street; the maidens, unable to break their seclu- sion, yet peering over walls, and through windows, and at every door to catch the news; the pitiless officer bent on discharging his mission. Then the scene changes. A horse with a terrible rider in golden armor dashes into the Temple precinct and tramples Heliodorus under foot, whilst on the other side stood two magnificent youths, who lash the prostrate intruder to the very verge of death, from which he is only res- cued by the prayers of Onias. The story lives only in the legends of the time, and was passed over alike by the contemporary and later historians. But when Raffaelle wished to depict the triumph of Pope Julius II. over the enemies of the Pontificate he could find no fitter scene to adorn forever the walls of the Vatican than that which represents the celestial cham- pion, with the vigor of immortal youth, trampling on the prostrate robber. Whatever may have been the actual incident thus enshrined, it was the natural prelude to the undoubted history which followed. It was reserved for the suc- cessor of Seleucus IV. to precipitate the crisis which had been long expected. Antiochus IV. was one of those strange characters in whom an eccentricity touching insanity on the left and genius on the right combined with absolute power and lawless passion to produce a por- tentious result, thus bearing out the two names by which he was known—Epiphanes—"the Brilliant," and Epimanes, "the Madman." On the one hand, even through the terrible picture drawn by the Jewish his- torians, traits of generosity and even kindness tran- spire. And in his splendid buildings, his enlargement and almost creation of Antioch as a magnificent capital —his plans for joining it with the bay of Scanderoon and thus making it a maritime emporium—his mu- nificence throughout the Grecian world, his determina- tion, however mischievous in its results, of consolid- ating a homogeneous Eastern Empire against the aggressions of the newly-rising Empire of the West— there is a grandeur of conception which corresponds to the contemporary Prophetic delineation of "the king "of an invincible countenance, understanding dark sentences and full of high swelling words." On the other hand, there was an extravagance, a littleness, in all his demeanor, which agrees with the unintelligible madman of the Gentile writers "the vile person" of the Hebrew poets and historians. They saw, instead of the literary Ptolemies or the godlike Alexander, a fantastic creature without dignity or self-control, caricaturing in a public masquerade the manners and dress of the august Roman magistrates, playing prac- tical jokes in the public streets and baths of Antioch, startling a group of young revelers by bursting in upon them with pipe and horn; tumbling with the bathers on the slippery marble pavement, as they ran to receive the shower of precious ointment which he had prepared for himself. The contradiction of the two sides of his character was wound up to its climax in the splendor of the procession which he organized at Daphne, in the most stately style, to outshine the most magnificent of the Roman triumphs, but in which he himself appeared riding in and out on a hack pony, playing the part of chief waiter, mountebank, and jester. It was a union of lofty policy and petty buffoonery, of high aspirations and small vexations, which reminds us of the attempts of Peter the Great to occidentalize Russia; as in the opposition of the old Muscovite party and of the Rascolniks we have a resemblance of the determined antagonism of the "Chasidim" to the Hel- lenization of their race. But Peter's attempt was founded on a far-seeing principle—that of Antiochus on a short-sighted fancy. The resistance of the Russian Dissenters was the mere tenacity of ancient prejudice. The resistance of the Jewish patriots was the determi- nation of a superior faith. To bring into a uniform submission to himself and the Gods of Greece, amongst whom he reckoned him- self, the various creeds and usages which he found under his sway became his fixed idea, fostered in part by his own personal vanity, partly by the desire to imitate the Roman policy, which he had studied whilst a hostage in Rome. In this design he was assisted by the Grecian party, of which we have spoken, in Pales- tine itself. The passion for Grecian connections showed itself in the desire to establish a claim of kindred with the Lacedæmonians, amongst whom a Jewish colony seems to have been established, and with whom a cor- respondence was alleged, as if Sparta too, in her fallen state, was eager to cultivate friendly relations with them. The names of the Macedonian months, hitherto unknown, were adopted either beside or instead of the Hebrew or Chaldæan nomenclature. The fever of Grecian fashions manifested itself in the Grecian nomenclature by which the ancient Hebrew names were superseded or corrupted. We have already seen how the central Judaic settlement had been surrounded by a fringe of Grecian towns. We now encounter the same tendency in the heart of every Jewish family. Jehoiakim becomes Alcimus; Solomon from analogy of the great Jewish and the great Gentile King, becomes Alexander; Salome, Alexandra; Onias, or Joseph, is transformed into Menelaus; Judas be- comes Aristobulus; Mattathias, Antigonus; John or Jonathan, Hyrcanus or Jannæus; Joshua sometimes becomes Jesus, sometimes the Argonautic hero Jason, sometimes Alexander, in its etymological sense of Champion. The era observed by the Jews in their civil contracts, even till A.D. 1040, was the era of the Seleucidæ, still observed by Eastern Christians as the era of Alexander, and adopted by the Syrian kingdom from October, B.C. 312—when the world seemed to begin again from the victory by which Seleucus wrested from Antigonus the ancient capital of Chaldæa, which even in its ruins was the prize of the East. The High Priesthood, like the modern Patriarchates, was sold by the foreign Government, in the needy con- dition of the Syrian finances, to the highest bidder, and amongst the various rivals Jason succeeded, who added to his bribes the attempt to win the favor of Antiochus by adopting the Gentile usages. It is startling to think of the sudden influx of Grecian manners into the very centre of Palestine. The modesty of the sons and daughters of Abraham was shocked by the establish- ment of the Greek palæstra, under the very citadel of David, where, in defiance of some of the most sensitive feelings of their countrymen, the most active of the Jewish youths completely stripped themselves and ran, wrestled, leaped in the public sports, like the Grecian athletes, wearing only the broad-brimmed hat in imi- tation of the headgear of the God Hermes, guardian of the gymnastic festivals. Even the priests in the temple caught the infection, left their sacrificial duties unfin- ished, and ran down from the Temple court to take part in the spectacle as son as they heard the signal for throwing the discus, which was to lead off the games. The sacred names of Jerusalem and Judæa were laid aside in favor of the title of "citizens of An- "tioch." A deputation of these would-be Greeks was sent by "the hateful Jason" to a likeness of the Olympian festival celebrated in the presence of the King at Tyre, in honor of the ancient sanctuary of Moloch or Melcart, now transformed into the Grecian Hercules; though here, with a curious scruple which withheld the pilgrims from going the whole length with their chief, they satisfied their consciences by spending the money intended for the sacrifice in the building of the war-galleys of the Syrian navy. With these lax imitations of the Pagan worship, the corruptions of the Priesthood became more and more scandalous. Mene- laus outbid Jason for the office. Their brother Onias took refuge from his violence in the sanctuary of Apollo at Daphne, near Antioch, and was thence dragged forth and killed, with a sacrilegious per- fidy which shocked Jew and heathen alike, and called out almost the only sign of human feeling which the Jewish annalist allows to the Syrian King. Onias himself, like a Becket or a Stanislaus, was transformed by a popular apotheosis into the celestial champion of his nation; and a long-standing monument of the hor- ror created by his murder was the rival temple at He- liopolis, built by his son Onias, who fled from Palestine on hearing of his father's death, as though there were no longer a home or a sanctuary for him in Palestine. Jason himself, after a momentary victory over his brother Menelaus in Jerusalem, was expelled, and closed a wandering exile by dying amongst the Spartan mountains. "And he that cast out many unburied "had none to mourn for him, nor any solemn funerals "at all, nor sepulchre with his fathers." In the midst of this dissolution of Jewish society it is no wonder that to the tension of imagination which such a time produces portents should have appeared— such as we find not only in the final siege of Jerusalem, but in the Gothic invasion of ancient Rome, in the plague of Papal Rome, in the fall of the Empire of Mon- tezuma in Mexico, in the Plague of London, in the French war of 1870. It happened that "through all "the city, for the space almost of forty days, there "were seen horsemen galloping through the air, in "cloth of gold, and armed with lances like a band of "soldiers, and squadrons of cavalry in array, and "charges, and encounters, and shaking of shields, and "multitude of pikes, and drawing of swords, and glit- "tering of golden ornaments, and harness of all sorts." The prayer "that this apparition might turn for good" was presently answered by the approach of the most startling catastrophe which the Jewish colony had ex- perienced since its return from Babylon, and which yet, with a fine moral sense of a deserved Nemesis, the nobler spirits among them acknowledged to be the just retribution for their crimes. It was after completing his conquest of Egypt that Antiochus, in pursuit at once of his political and religious ambition, seized upon Jerusalem. The terrified population fled before him. They were hewn down in the streets; they were pursued to the roofs of their houses. But that which even more than this widespread massacre thrilled the city with consternation was the sight of the King, in all the pomp of royalty, led by the apostate Menelaus into the sanctuary itself. It was believed by the Greek world that he reached the innermost recess and there found the statue of the founder of the nation—the great lawgiver Moses—with the long flowing beard which tradition assigned to him, and seated on the Egyptian ass, from the time of the Exodus down to the second century of our era the inseparable accompani- ment of the Israelite. With characteristic rapacity he laid hands on the sacred furniture which the wealthy Babylonian Jews had contributed through the hands of Ezra—the golden altar of incense, the golden candle- stick, the table of consecrated bread, and all the lesser ornaments and utensils. The golden candlestick, which was an object of especial interest from its containing the perpetual light, was traditionally believed to have fallen to the share of the renegade High Priest Mene- laus. The great deposits which had escaped the grasp of Heliodorus, and which, but for the national deprav- ity, would, it was thought, have been again defended by celestial champions, were seized by the king kimself. Then came another sudden attack under Apollonius the tax-gatherer, successor of Heliodorus, who took occasion to attack them on their day of weekly rest, scattering them or dragging them off to the slave-mar- ket from the midst of their festivities. It is a strat- egem which occurs so often at this time as to lose its point, but which shows how rigidly since Nehemiah's time the observance of the Sabbath had set in. The rest, both of the seventh day and of the seventh year, had now become a fixed institution, guarded with the utmost tenacity, and carried into the most trivial and, at times, impracticable details. There was a short pause, during which consternation spread throughout the country. In every home there was desolation as if for a personal sorrow. The grief of the women was even more affecting that the indignant sorrow of the men; and showed how completely they shared the misfortunes of their country. The Holy City was transformed into the likeness of a Grecian garrison. The walls that Nehemiah had built with so much care were dismantled; the houses in their neigh- borhood were burnt; another massacre and another cap- tivity followed. The blood ran through the streets and even in the Temple courts. The hill on which had stood the Palace of David was fortified with a separate wall, took the name of "The Height" ("Acra"), and was occupied with the Greek or Grecian party, the more ir- ritating of those who still adhered to their country and their faith because it overlooked the Temple itself. It was regarded as a perpetual tempter, an adversary or devil in stone—as a personal enemy. And over this fortress presided Philip, of rough Phrygian manners, and, more odious than all, the High Priest Menelaus, "who bore a heavy hand over all the citizens, hav- "ing a malicious hatred against his countrymen the "Jews." But the worst was still to come. As soon as the en- tanglements of Antiochus in his Egyptian war allowed him a respite for his Syrian projects he determined on carrying out his fixed plans of a rigid uniformity throughout the land—"that all should be "one people and that every one should hear his laws." There was not a corner of Judæa which was not now invaded by the emissaries of Polytheism, rendered yet more hateful by the assistance received from the renegade Israelites. A special commissioner was set to preside over this forced conversion; it is uncertain whether from Antioch, or, as if to introduce the new worship from its most genuine seat, from Athens. Under him, adopting the existing framework of the Jewish constitu- tion for the purpose, "overseers" (as we have already seen expressed in the Greek original by the word which has passed into "Bishops") were sent through- out the several districts both of Judæa and Sama- ria. The Divinity to whom the Holy Mount of Jeru- salem was to be dedicated was the Father of Gods and men, in whose honor Antiochus had already begun at Athens the stately temple, even of his own age a wonder of the world, of which the magnificent ruins still stand on the banks of the Ilissus—Jupiter Olym- pius. On Mount Gerizim—apparently because the Samaritans gave the new worship a more hospitable welcome—was planted the sanctuary of the patron of hospitality—Jupiter Xenius. The gay Dionysiac festival was also established, and the grave Israelites were compelled to join in the Bacchanalian procession with wreaths of ivy round their heads—sometimes with the mark of the ivy- leaf branded into their skins. The King's own special deity was not of his Grecian ancestry, nut one bor- rowed from Rome—whether the War-God Mars, Father of the Roman people, or Jupiter of Capi- toline Rock, to whom he began to build a splendid temple at Antioch—in either case, filling even the Jews, to whom all these divinities might have been thought equally repugnant, with a new thrill of sorrow, as indicating a disrespect even of the religions of his own race; and introduced a strange and terrible name. "He regarded not the God of his fathers, he "honored the God of forces, a God whom his fathers "knew not"—a God whose temples were fortresses. In every town and village of the country were erected altars, at which the inhabitants were compelled to offer sacrifices in the heathen form, and on the King's birthday to join in the sacrificial feast. The two chief external marks of Judaism—the repose of the Sabbath and the proud badge of ancient civiliza- tion, the rite of circumcision—were strictly for- bidden on pain of death. And at last the crowning misery of all, which sent a shock through the whole community, was the deliberate desecration of the Temple, not only by adapting it to Grecian worship, but by every species of outrage and dishonor. The great gates were burned. The name of the officer who had charge of setting fire to them was known and marked out—Callisthenes. Its smooth and well-kept courts were left to be overgrown by rank vegetation, in the shelter of which, as in the groves of Daphne, the licentious rites of Antioch were carried on. And now came the culminating horror. It was the 23d of the month of Mareschvan (November) that the enclosure was broken between the outer and inner court; in after days the breaches were pointed out in thirteen places. On the 15th of the next month (Chisleu—December) a small Grecian altar was planted on the huge platform of the altar of Zerubbabel in honor of the Olympian Jupiter. On the 25th the profanation was consum- mated by introducing a herd of swine and slaughtering them in the sacred precincts. One huge sow was chosen from the rest. Her blood was poured on the altar be- fore the Temple and on the Holy of Holies within. A mess of broth was prepared from he flesh, and sprinkled on the copies of the Law. This was the "abomination "of desolation"—the horror which made the whole place a desert. From that moment the daily offerings ceased, the perpetual light of the great candlestick was extinguished—the faithful Israelites fled from the pre- cincts. When, in the last great pollution of Jerusalem under the Romans, a like desecration was attempted, no other words could be found more solemn than those already used in regard to Syrian distress. But the persecution was not confined to the extirpation of the national worship. Every Jew was constrained to con- form to the new system. The children were no longer to receive the initiatory rite of circumcision. The swine's flesh was forced into the mouths of the reluct- ant worshippers, who were compelled to offer the un- clean animal on altars erected at very door and in every street. The books of the Law, multiplied and treasured with so much care from the days of Ezra, were burnt. Many assisted and bowed before the oppressor. One example was long held in horror, which shows that there were some who welcomed the intrusion with delight. There was a daughter of the priestly order of Bilgah, Miriam, who had married a Syrian officer, and with him entered the temple, and, as they approached the altar, she struck the altar with her shoe, exclaim- ing, "Thou insatiable wolf, how much longer art thou "to consume the wealth of Israel, though thou canst "not help them in their hour of need?" It was the remembrance of the rapacity of her family, so it was said, that drove her into this fierce reaction. When the worship was restored, the disgrace which she had brought on the order was perpetuated, and they alone of the priestly courses had no separate store-room, or separate rings for their victims. But others dared the worst rather than submit. Some con- cealed themselves in the huge caverns of the neigh- boring hills, and were suffocated by fires lighted at the mouth. Two mothers were hanged on the wall, with their dead babies at their breasts, whom they had circumcised. A venerable scribe of ninety years of age, Eleazar, steadily refused to retain the hated swine's flesh in his mouth; stripped of his clothes, but, as the latest version finally expresses it, wrapped in the dig- nity of old age and piety, like a fine athlete in the Gre- cian games, he walked boldly to the rack, on which he was scourged to death. "I will show myself such "an one as my age requireth, and leave a notable ex- "ample to such as be young to die willingly and cour- "ageously for the honorable and holy laws." Most memorable was the slow torture by which the mother and her seven sons expired. It was told in a narrative couched, like the martyrologies of Christian times, in exaggerated language, and disfiguring the noble pro- testations of the sufferers by the invocations of curses on the persecutors, but still forcibly expressing the liv- ing testimony of conscience against the interference of power, the triumph of the spirit over outward suffering. The very implements of torture are the same which have lived on through all the centuries in which theo- logical hatred and insane cruelty have overborne the natural affections of the human heart. The rack, the wheel, the scourge, the flame, have been handed on from Antiochus to Diocletian, to the Council of Con- stance, to Philip II., to Calvin, to Louis XIV. These are the first of the noble army of martyrs to whom history has given a voice. "Vixere fortes ante "Agamemnona." Those who were slain by Jezebel or Manasseh may have nourished in their deaths a curage as high and a faith as firm. But they passed to their reward in silence. In the earlier account even those who fell under the tyranny of Antiochus, their end is described with a severe brevity, which for solemn impressiveness leaves nothing to be desired, "So "then they died." But the later account places in the mouths of the sufferers the words destined to animate the long succession of the victims of religious intoler- ance, whether heathen against Christian, Christian against Jew, Catholic against Protestant, Protestant against Protestant. "What wouldst thou ask or learn? "We are ready to die rather than transgress the laws "of our fathers. It is manifest unto the Lord that hath "the holy knowledge that whereas I might have been "delivered from death, I now endure grievous pains "in body, but in soul I am well content to suffer these "things because I fear Him." In this sense Eleazar was justly honored in the ancient Church as the Proto- Martyr. The seven brothers were, by a bold fiction of ecclesiastical law, entitled "Christian Martyrs"— Christianum nomen, postea divulgatum, factis anteces- serunt. In this terrible crisis it is not surprising that what ever sparks of the spirit of the Psalmist and the Prophet still lingered should once more have been evoked from the depths of the national heart. There are two Psalms at least—the 74th and the 79th—which can hardly be the expression of any period but this. They describe with passionate grief the details of the profanation of the sanctuary, the gates in flames, the savage soldiers hewing down the delicate carved work, the axe and hatchet, like woodmen in a forest, the roar of the irreverent multitude, the erec- tion of the heathen emblems; they sigh over the in- dignity of the corpses slain in the successive massacres, left outside of the walls of the city to be devoured by vulture and jackal—they look in vain for a Prophet to arise—they console themselves with the recollection of the overthrow of he huge monsters of the earlier empires, and with the hope that this crisis will pass in like manner. Another burst of anguish was in the eighteen Psalms ascribed to Solomon, but probably of this epoch. In them we see the battering-ram beating down the walls, the proud heathens stalking through the Temple courts, not so much as taking off their shoes; we hear the bitter curses on those who endeavor to please men, and who dissemble their own convictions; we see those who frequented the syna- gogues of some anointed of the Lord who should, like David, deliver them from their enemies. But there was a yet more important addition to the sacred literature of this period. Even those who would place the composition of the Book of Daniel at an earlier time will not deny that this was the exact date—to be measured almost by the year and the month—when as a whole or piecemeal it made its appearance and significance felt throughout the suffering nation. "Antiochus was on his way "northward from Egypt. The complete suppression "of the Temple sacrifices might then have lasted a "twelvemonth, and everything had reached that state "of extreme tension when the ancient religion upon "its sacred soil must either disappear from view com- "pletely for long ages, or must rise in fresh strength "and outward power against enemies thus immoder- "ately embittered. It was at this crisis, in the sultry "heat of an age thus frightfully oppressive, that this "book appeared with its sword-edge utterance, its "piercing exhortation to endure in the face of the despot, "and its promise, full of Divine joy, of near and sure "salvation. No dew of heaven could fall with more "refreshing coolness on the parched ground, no spark "from above alight with a more kindling power on the "surface so long heated with a hidden glow. With "winged brevity the book gives a complete survey of "the history of the kingdom of God upon earth, show- "ing the relations which it had hitherto sustained in "Israel to the successive great heathen empires of the "Chaldæan, the Medo-Persians, and Greeks,—in a word, "towards the heathenism which ruled the world; and "with the finest perception it describes the nature "and individual career of Antiochus Epiphanes and his "immediate predecessors so far as was possible in view "of the great events which had just occurred. Rarely "does it happen that a book appears as this did, in "the very crisis of the times, and in a form most "suited to such an age, artificially reserved, close and "severe, and yet shedding so clear a light through "obscurity., and so marvellously captivating. It was "natural that it should soon achieve a success entirely "corresponding to its inner truth and glory. And "so, for the last time in the literature of the Old Tes- "tament, we have in this book an example of a work "which, having sprung from the deepest necessities of "the noblest impulses of the age, can render to that "age the purest service; and which by the develop- "ment of events immediately after, receives with such "power the stamp of Divine witness that it subse- "quently attains imperishable sanctity." Whether the narrative of the faithful Israelites in the court of Nebuchadnezzar and of Darius had been handed down from the Exile, or whether they were then produced for the first time, the practical result must have been the same. As the seven sons are the first example of the heroic testimony of martyrs' words, so the narrative of the Three Children in the Fire and of Daniel in the Lions' Den is the first glori- fication, the first canonization, so to speak, of the martyr spirit. And accordingly at this time we first find them cited as encouragements and consolations.
2018.10.10 14:45 bappelcake Gastcollege VS-ambassadeur Pete Hoekstra: Samenvatting, vragen en antwoorden
2018.06.20 16:49 qchisq Artikel 11 og 13: Hvad de reelt siger
Member States shall provide publishers of press publications established in a Member State with the rights provided for in Article 2 and Article 3(2) of Directive 2001/29/EC for the online use of their press publications by information society service providersJeg er ikke helt sikker på hvad "press publications" med de rettigheder der er defineret i "Article 2 and Article 3(2) of Directive 2001/29/EC" dækker over. Det kan være det bare er nyhedssider eller bogproducenter og jeg gider ikke til at læse Directive 2001/29/EC. Det her er tørt nok i forvejen. Det korte af det lange er at artikel kun dækker over "press publications". Menr den anden subparagraf af paragraf indeholder to meget vigtige pointer:
The rights referred to in the first subparagraph shall not apply in respect of uses of insubstantial parts of a press publication. Member States shall be free to determine the insubstantial nature of parts of press publications taking into account whether these parts are the expression of the intellectual creation of their authors, or whether these parts are individual words or very short excerpts, or both criteria.Pointe 1: Det her bliver virkelig tørt. Pointe 2: De rettigheder som artikel 11 omfatter ikke brug af ting kun er en uvæsentlig del af værket og det er de individuelle medlemsstater der bestemmer hvad "uvæsentlig" betyder. Det betyder, eksempelvis, at hvis Polen beslutter at "uvæsentlig" betyder "hvad man kan forvente i dag på reddit", så gør reddit ikke noget strafbart hvis de har base i Polen, selv hvis Holland beslutter at "uvæsentlig" betyder "alt hvad der er lavet nogensinde".
The rights referred to in paragraph 1 shall expire 1 year after the publication of the press publication. This term shall be calculated from the first day of January of the year following the date of publication.Kort sagt, hvis du har copyright på noget, så er det kun omfattet af artikel 11 1 år plus løbende år. Fair nok, det er relativt lang tid hvis vi snakker nyhedsartikler. Men, igen, det er op til de enkelte stater at bestemme hvad "væsentlig" dækker over. Og jeg ville blive stærkt overrasket hvis medlemstaterne besluttede at de dækkede over links.
An online content sharing service provider shall obtain an authorisation from the rightholders referred to in Article 3(1) and (2) of Directive 2001/29/EC in order to communicate or make available to the public works or other subject matter. Where no such authorisation has been obtained, the service provider shall prevent the availability on its service of those works and other subject matter, including through the application of measures referred to in paragraph 4. This subparagraph shall apply without prejudice to exceptions and limitations provided for in Union lawBasically, hvis du er en side som Reddit eller Youtube og du vil give adgang til noget der er beskyttet af artikel 3(1) og (2) i Direktiv 2001/29/EC, så skal du have lov til det først. Hvis webstedet ikke har fået lov til at give adgang til det værk, så skal man forhindre brugerne i at tilgå de værker. Og her er der ikke mulighed for at Sverige har lempligere regler end Tyskland.
In the absence of the authorisation referred to in the second subparagraph of paragraph 1, Member States shall provide that an online content sharing service provider shall not be liable for acts of communication to the public or making available to the public within the meaning of this Article when:Basically, webstederne holdes straffrie hvis de prøver "effektivt og proportionelt" at forhindre brugere i at tilgå "specific works or other subject matter" på deres platform OG de fjerner ting de har fået at vide bryder copyrighten.
it demonstrates that it has made best efforts to prevent the availability of specific works or other subject matter by implementing effective and proportionate measures, in accordance with paragraph 5, to prevent the availability on its services of the specific works or other subject matter identified by rightholders and for which the rightholders have provided the service with relevant and necessary information for the application of these measures; and
upon notification by rightholders of works or other subject matter, it has acted expeditiously to remove or disable access to these works or other subject matter and it demonstrates that it has made its best efforts to prevent their future availability through the measures referred to in point (a).
The measures referred to in point (a) of paragraph 4 shall be effective and proportionate, taking into account, among other factors:Dermed bliver små sider bliver ikke tvunget til at implementere copyright beskyttelse.
(a) the nature and size of the services, in particular whether they are provided by a microenterprise or a small-sized enterprise within the meaning of Title I of the Annex to Commission Recommendation 2003/361/EC, and their audience;
(b) the amount and the type of works or other subject matter uploaded by the users of the services;Medmindre, selvfølgelig, at webstedet kun fungerer på grund af brud på den copyright
(c) the availability and costs of the measures as well as their effectiveness in light of technological developments in line with the industry best practice referred to in paragraph 8.Dermed behver man ikke have anti-copyright "measures" hvis det bliver vurderet at de er for dyre i brug eller ikke er tilgængelige. Alt i alt synes jeg sådan set at det er ok defineret. Små websites bliver ikke omfattet af artikel 13 og hvis man ikke kan implementere anti-copyright measures på en måde der giver mening, så behøver man heller ikke gøre det.
2013.06.17 16:45 tabledresser [Table] IAmA Finnish Army conscript. AMA
|How many Russians can you take down before you get overrun?||Depends on situation. With spoon-fork combination maybe 15-20, with knife 30+ and an assault rifle it goes in hundreds.|
|No, seriously, we're trained to defend against enemy that is three times more powerful. It's something like the goal. The interesting fact is that the enemy is never "Russians", they are like "the yellow state" or "the k-state". Everyone still knows that it's Russia.|
|Do you play any Call of Duty games? If so, what do you think of Russia always being the antagonist?||I play Battlefield, it's better than COD ;)|
|It's not a deal for me. I think that American entertainment industry likes to dig up some Cold War history and put the great superpowers against each other. And Russians don't seem to care a lot about the fact that they are the "bad guys". In BF4, there is China versus the US, I think.|
|What exactly do you do while you are conscripted for a year? It seems like a long time to be in the one spot training and all. It's just hard for me to imagine that there's actually all that much to do.||Well, there's the basic training of 8 weeks. After that I went to NCO school that lasted 16 weeks. Then rest of the service is leadership period. In military police it means guarding duties and training war-time actions. A year is actually quite a short time to train when there's all the holidays etc.|
|Also, I've heard it's pretty common to be able to get out in 6 months. Were you just unlucky that you stayed for a whole year?||In some places 6 months is an easy way to go. If you want only six months, probably you will get so. I wasn't unlucky, I wanted to stay the whole year because there wouldn't be much to do in the other half of the year. With high school education you aren't really hot in work markets and the university starts in autumn.|
|Do you guys do any deployments or is it just all stateside? I can't imagine a 347 day or less conscript being able to fulfill a decent deployment to a war zone.||I think that none of the conscripts get deployed during their training. In Pori Brigade there's Finnish Rapid Deployment Force which is one of the special forces available for conscripts. It focuses on making soldiers to peacekeeping operations. You can apply to peacekeeping operations after conscription not depending on which training program you have gone through.|
|Also, is the food good? I know here in the United States, Army chow sucks ass, Air Force/Joint Base chow is the shit, and Coast Guard chow isn't bad either.||Here the food is really good. We get breakfast, lunch, dinner and something to eat at evening. I serve in such a small place that the food has quite a high level. In bigger places the food is a little bit worse but still very eatable.|
|Lastly, thanks for your service Soldier. I respect all men and women who fight for their countries, even if they didn't volunteer. It still takes guts to be a warrior.||I don't see myself as a warrior. This is just a thing that has to be gone through because I've won in the lottery and have born in Finland. I have no interest on going on deployment, the army world is not for me. Thanks anyway!|
|A friend of mine is going to Finland this summer to do his service (He's Finnish). Any advice for him? And with what Finnish saying could I flatter a girl? A friend of mine spent a year in Finland and is pretty fluent, I could use some help.||A very brief advice: don't be first, don't be last, don't at least be volunteer. The whole thing is a big show: if it hits you on the cheek, just turn the other cheek and let it hit there also. Try not to moan about things - they won't probably change. Bring your own underwear and socks (especially for winter). Tell your friend not to worry. Every normal man or woman can go through it. It has ups and downs but some day it's always over. And remember to tell him "aamuja".|
|You asked women advice from wrong man. I suck at flattering girls. Go on and try the other geeks in Finland...|
|What did you enjoy the most about your time as a conscript? What was the thing you enjoyed the least?||Well, there are many things. It's really easy just to be - everything comes served, the food, laundry, some activities... Maybe the most enjoyable moments are those when the weather is awesome and you are chilling in the forest doing some shootings etc. Or the moments when a really hard exercise has ended. The worst moments are those when you are tired and you are doing something that you can't see useful. And if it rains. Raining sucks ass. I prefer cold, dry winter to wet and damp autumn.|
|Miten menee?||Mikäs tässä. Hyviä spol-hommia, koko yö valveilla eli läppäri hanskaan ja dataamaan.|
|- i'm ex-military myself and when younger I was used think that my country (UK) should have conscription due to the amount of useful skills/discipline/comradeship you learn. I still think you learn some really great lessons in the military but i'm no longer sure whether conscription would be the best idea for my country. My question is basically what you think of the Finnish system? Is it useful or a waste of money?||Edit: Here's the comment. In my personal opinion, maybe it would be time also for Finland to move on to voluntary forces. From my point of view this system takes a whole lot of resources and the result isn't so shiny when you just take a look at the conscripts and their skills in an ordinary unit. But I'm sure that I can't see every side of the question of voluntary/conscript forces. Luckily it's not my decision to make. Hopefully our systems will never go to real test.|
|This is not about the army but I watched (and loved) Steam of Life/ Miesten Vuoro. Any other movie/documentary suggestions?||I haven't seen that one myself. There's not much that comes to mind. I watch tv so little. One movie that pictures youngsters' living in 60s and 70s Finnish and Swedish Lapland is Populäärimusiikkia Vittulajänkältä . It's quite a good movie.|
|You could ask from Finland. The people there might give better advice...|
|Or I could myself take a look: here's such a good list.|
|There's a Finland subreddit? You have made my day!||Yes, Finland isn't really big but there seems to be a few foreigners asking for information or something. There's also Finnish-speaking Suomi and learnfinnish for language learners.|
|Now I have a relevant question: how was it being in the service? I may have an exaggerated idea of sisu but I imagine that everyone approaches military service nonchalantly.||It's hard to answer to a question how was it? It depends so much. I have not been the most nonchalant of all because whatever has to be done I like to do it properly. Of course sometimes I think that this year has gone wasted, I could have already been studying in university for a year. Some people don't really give a fuck about conscription and they sometimes irritate me when they won't do anything properly.|
|Also...your language is hella-hard! I became a rather adequate speaker but now...not so much much.||It has been some kind of an adventure. Good moments, bad moments. Sisu has been sometimes in use. The living here is easy but it dominates life strongly because of living in the barracks instead of home. I truly like that I'm finally going home...|
|Hey how are you doing today? I live in Canada but I have finnish heritage and I have lots of family living in the Kuhmo area. Anyways I hope you have a great day and thank you for your services for Finland.||Now I'm really tired: it's over 5 am and I've been up all night. Luckily I get to sleep within a couple of hours. Only a little bit over three days and I'm out of this place. That feels really good.|
|I've been in Kuhmo area a couple of times. It's quite nice place to be.|
|In general, are people from Finland shy? because i am a American and i have a Finnish friend and he seems to be a quiet person. I'm sorry this question isn't directly linked to the fact that you are a army conscript it is more of a general question for Finnish people.||The answers from other people are good. I might consider myself a little quiet when I'm with people I don't know well. I don't like the meaningless small-talk. It's better to be quiet. There's nothing wrong with silence.|
|And when I'm drunk I become overly social...|
|What is your favourite place and favourite thing about Finland?||Duh. There's so many nice places in Finland and I have seen only a fraction. I really liked the Käsivarsi Wilderness area when I visited there. In general, I prefer untouched nature to built cities and stuff. And in Finland the nature is vast.|
|Maybe the nature is the thing that I like. Of course the Finnish society is great but I don't think about it because it only goes on with my life automatically. Also we have four real seasons here. It's a good thing.|
|I'm from Finnish descent and went there last year. I cannot wait to go back again when I have a lot more money. It was beautiful and I hung out with relatives in tiny apartments and visited some of the smaller towns. It was beautiful and comfy in every single way. Will definitely look at the wilderness area. How do you feel about Estonia?||Welcome back! I haven't visited Estonia for many many years, last time maybe I was something like 13 or 14 when I was there. I don't feel anything special about it, many Finns bring cheap beer and booze from there.|
|I was in the Swedish army about 15 years ago and it's funny you say the enemy is never the Russians because it was the same for us. It was always big red country attacks small blue country from the east. Sweden abolished conscription a couple of years ago, do you think that is the way Finland will go too?||Edit: comment here In my personal opinion, maybe it would be time also for Finland to move on to voluntary forces. From my point of view this system takes a whole lot of resources and the result isn't so shiny when you just take a look at the conscripts and their skills in an ordinary unit. But I'm sure that I can't see every side of the question of voluntary/conscript forces. Luckily it's not my decision to make. Hopefully our systems will never go to real test.|
|How many conscripts decide to stick with the military for their career?||Hm. That's kind of a tough one. You can serve as a contract soldier after conscription or apply to National Defence University). A military career isn't very popular among Finnish youth. I'd estimate that maybe five of my unit are going on a career either way. And there's like 100 people there so it's 5 %. Can't be really accurate.|
|I don't have to do conscriptionp due to the fact that I have dual citizenship with Finland and the USA. Any opinion? Such as I'm escaping through a loophole, etc?||It's not a loophole if you have been told that you don't have to go. It's a loophole when someone goes to the doctor's and lies about having a broken back etc. and gets to go home with relief from peace time service. I dislike it.|
|Edit: I do have a letter from the Finnish Army saying I don't have to do conscription.||If you want to serve in Finland and it's possible in your studies, it might be worth a try. You don't really lose anything bigger than life if you don't but as I said, it's one kind of an adventure.|
|Roughly where are you stationed? Does the army train troops in say unconventional environments? I.e. do you experience any desert warfare training or is it pure homeland defense stuff?||I'm located in Eastern Finland. The ones who go to peacekeeping operations probably have training about their environment which is desert at least in Afghanistan which is quite a popular place to be. It was mentioned in other comments but conscripts focus on homeland defense only.|
|The sissi troops and special forces might have the most unconventional environment training because of their long trips in the wilderness.|
|Thanks for answering! What is your main rifle you train with? I guess issued would be a better term eh...||RK 62 TP translated as Assault Rifle 62 Folding Stock (rynnäkkökivääri 62 taittoperä). Military police tends to have the folding stock. Some troops are using also the newer version, RK95.|
|When do you finish?||On Thursday ;)|
|What kind of weapons do you have experience with?||Mostly assault rifle RK 62 TP and two pistols: FN (I don't know the model, it was old and it sucked) and Glock 17 9mm pistol. Besides those I've shot a couple of times with a PKM light machine gun and a 7,62 mm sniper rifle which is called Sniper Rifle M85 here in Finland.|
|Any idea how much the ammo costs?||Not a single idea.|
|FN (I don't know the model, [...] I'm guessing this is the 9.00 PIST 80 and/or 9.00 PIST 80-91, basically the Browning BDA, also known as the FN HP-DA.||Yes, this one. I prefer Glock to this A LOT.|
|Dammit, I am doing research on the 7.62x39 round so any info on it would be appreciated.||Sorry, I can't really help you. I'm not really fond of firearms, so mostly I've only been making metal pieces go from point to another.|
|Are you an operative or a tactical military police? If tactical, do the conscripts serve 6 months or 9 months with the operatives? A fellow operative MP from north-karelia brigade here. Feels pretty sad that there won't be anyone here after us.||There's no difference where I'm serving because there's only one MP platoon around. I think that every MP serves 9 months. I've heard about the tactical/operative difference but I don't know anyone personally who would clearly be in the other.|
|Do the Hawks have any chance of beating Tuukka Rask?||Hm. I don't watch ice hockey but I'd like to say that no.|
|What's the difference? I'm Finnish and I did my military service a few years ago (not as MP obviously) and I've never heard of this :O.||I've heard that the difference is that operative MP forces participate in guarding of the garrison and the tactical MPs train only war-time operations.|
|Olikos teillä jo se lyhennetty palvelus?||Juu. Kun tulin niin piti olla vielä 362, mutta siinä joskus viime vuoden puolella tuli tieto että 15 päivää lyhenee.|
|So i guess you are almost finished? hahahahahahah.||Yes.|
|Moi moi, mina olen vitun uskomaton. Voi vittu. That's my limited knowledge of your language.||You seem to have met a drunk Finn somewhere in the middle of the night.|
|Is finnish basic training like the first half of the movie full metal jacket.||I haven't seen that movie but I think that it isn't. It's about learning basic soldier's skills.|
|I guess the Rapid deployment forces work in a similar way to peacekeaping duty, completely voluntary and the deployment itself is after you have completed your mandatory period. En oo kyllä valmiusjoukkoihin tutustunu vaikka vietinki aikaa Porissa muutaman kuukauden. Aamuja vaan, t. spol 1/11.||Joo näin se kai menee. Ei tässä enää kovin suurta kasaa oo kun nyt on maanantai ja torstaina pois =)))|
|Terveiset Merisotakoulusta. Tj3. Cool to see such an active AMA in /Finland.||Aamuja vaan. Kolmesta saa kasan ja kahdestakin pinon.|
|Redditor for 1 day. Militaryspam.||Throwaway for reasons.|
|How many hours per month do you spend eating reindeer pizza, listening to Nightwish, and shouting perkele at each other?||Perkele is shouted a lot. Especially in the Army. I listen to heavy music but not Nightwish, sometimes it only comes from the radio. There's no reindeer pizza in the southern Finland but in Lapland it's really tasty.|
|Swedish military has newer and better equipment than the Finnish one for obvious reasons and unlike Finland Sweden doesn't have conscription but we rely on a volunteer military force. Which system do you think is better? Also, it is my understanding that every child is forced to learn Swedish in Finland. What do you think about that?||Yeah, the Swedes are always ahead of us... :P It hasn't been long since Sweden also had conscription? Nowadays it is voluntary force, that I knew already. In my personal opinion, maybe it would be time also for Finland to move on to voluntary forces. From my point of view this system takes a whole lot of resources and the result isn't so shiny when you just take a look at the conscripts and their skills in an ordinary unit. But I'm sure that I can't see every side of the question of voluntary/conscript forces. Luckily it's not my decision to make. Hopefully our systems will never go to real test. My opinion of Swedish teaching is quite neutral. I think that it should be taught at least on those areas that have larger population of Swedish speakers. I don't see it really necessary in areas populated only Finnish speakers. The difficulty is in drawing the line. Maybe it's good to teach it to everyone so that no lines need to be drawn...|
|Oi voi. Nyt kyllä tuhlasit turhaa aikaa noin pitkän vastauksen kirjoittamiseen. Käypä katsomassa tuon hemmon profiili, niin huomaat millainen vittuileva peikko sieltä löytyy. Suoranainen legenda jo Suomi-aiheisilla alaredditeillä.||No perse. Tylsää mulla kuitenkin oli koko yön...|
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